Robert Maxwell, Promisgate, and the advent of the Israeli cybersecurity industry

by Shayan Zarrin A key player in Soviet/Israeli espionage for decades to come was Robert Maxwell, real name, Jan Ludvik Hoch. Maxwell began his career as an interrogation officer for the British army at the Bad Salzuflen Headquarters in the British occupied zone of Germany right after World War 2, where he was interrogating German scientists. Maxwell would spend a considerable amount of time in the Russian sector of occupied Germany, which made British and American intelligence question his loyalty. According to the book, “KGB: Death and Rebirth” by author Martin Ebon, Robert Maxwell’s biographer, Tom Bower says that he was told by Detlev Raymond, an employee of Maxwell in New York that, “Maxwell’s relations with the Russians and the KGB were not were “not simply social.” Raymond asserted that, “either willingly or unwillingly, Maxwell compromised himself with the Russians.” He cited a “KGB claim” that Maxwell “signed a document which promised to assist the security agency if needed.”